Saturday, March 14, 2020

Haitian and French Revolution Essay Example

Haitian and French Revolution Essay Example Haitian and French Revolution Essay Haitian and French Revolution Essay Both the French and Haitian revolutions were spurred for similar reasons by distressed people, with an unfair distribution between social classes, restricted liberties and also a large gap between the rich and the poor which was the main impulse. There were significant overall economic differences between Haiti and France before the revolutions occurred. France was nearly bankrupt by the time that the revolution began and the American revolution had been extremely costly for France. The large economic ache on France caused abundant pain on France and cause heavy taxation of the bottom social class. In contrast, the economy of Haiti was not a factor that fueled the Revolution. The Haitian economy was flourished. Free labor from slaves created a excess of goods. The social class situations of Haiti and France were the main causes of both revolutions. The Haitian social class system was particularly flaky because it was based on race. The French system was also very stratified and consisted on the lower class. A meager of the people had privileges, comfort, and luxury while the majority if people suffered. The lowest class of each society realized that their strength in numbers of their cause. : The third estate broke Free from France and created the Declaration of the Rights of Man. This document outlined a set of rights that pertained to every man from any social class. From there, the third estate moved forward in taking the country. The Haitian slaves overthrew their oppressors. Francias Toussaint Loverture was the leader of the revolution and was a big factor in how they defeated the Europeans. The slave revolution was not just a clash in Social classes, but also a clash between races. Unlike the French Revolution, the two sides of the Haitian revolution were racially different.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Thesis proposal about antibiotic resistance pathogens in fomities Dissertation

Thesis proposal about antibiotic resistance pathogens in fomities - Dissertation Example Few pathogens exhibit resistance to antibiotics. Genes that confer resistance to drugs can however be transferred between microorganisms (Hawkey and Jones, 7). This transfer can occur through three different ways namely; transformation, transduction or by conjugation. This transfer makes many bacteria to develop resistance. Antibiotic resistance can, therefore, occur naturally. In this natural occurrence, the causative gene becomes shared between organisms in close proximity of one another (Birgit Strommenger, 3). In such occurrence, the bacteria cannot be exposed to treatment. Exposure to antibiotics at this stage can cause evolutionary stress which leads to the development of the resistant trait. Plasmids can be defined as DNA molecules separate from the chromosomal DNA with the ability to replicate on their own (Abad and R M Pintà ³, 65). Most antibiotic resistant genes reside within these plasmids. The ability of plasmids to replicate independently makes it extremely difficult t o kill the microorganisms residing in them. Some organisms possess several resistant genes. Multidrug resistant is the formal name given to such organisms. Informally, they can be referred as superbugs. Executive summary This is a research based proposal which seeks to explore into the area of antibiotic resistance by commonly found infectious bacteria. ... The factors which aid the pathogens in the spread have also been put into consideration within this proposal. Introduction The extensive use of antibiotics in modern day medical treatments has brought about many challenges into the field of medicine. Several microorganisms when exposed to these drugs develop resistance to the drug. This in turn translates to a difficult dilemma to medical practitioners. The only way to treat these infections is through exposing them to drugs. This exposure, however, makes them develop resistance to the same drugs (Hawkey, 4). This proposal explores the various pathogens which have developed this trait. The role of these pathogens in Hospital Acquired Infection and the transmission routes for the pathogens are also evaluated. Causes of antibiotic resistance Numerous reasons have been cited for the widespread resistance to antibiotics in modern medicine. The extensive use of antibiotic in modern medicine has been one of the major contributors to this e merging trend. Overreliance on antibiotic has been a leading factor to the development of multidrug resistance among pathogens (Hawkey and Jones, 7). The multidrug resistant pathogens have also become prevalent between many bacterial species which did not previously exhibit these characteristics. This can be attributed to the ability of certain bacteria to transfer the resistant gene to others. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics by both doctors and patients alike has been quoted as the major cause of drug resistance. Other factors have been the addition of antibiotics into animal feeds, and fraudulent practices among the manufacturers within the pharmaceutical industry. There is a need for the individuals

Monday, February 10, 2020

Microbiology Laboratory Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Microbiology Laboratory Questions - Essay Example It ferments inulin and produces virulence in mice. While viridans streptococci are optochin resistant, bile insoluble and non-capsulated. They do not ferment inulin and do not produce virulence in mice. (Ross, 1999. p 276) Answer 4. The Quellung reaction was first described by Neufeld (1902). The word â€Å"Quellung† means swelling in German. The polysaccharide antigen in the bacterial capsules reacts with the specific antibody produced in sensitized laboratory animals. This reaction causes the capsule to enlarge and become opaque. This can then be observed microscopically. Several bacterial species namely, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella and Group B Streptococci show a positive test for this reaction. (Fischer et al.) Answer 5. The bacterial capsule plays a vital role in virulence and pathogenesis. It protects the bacterium against the host immune processes like phagocytosis. Also, the capsule provides sites for cellular attachment to the host (Hammerschmidt, 2005). Answer 6. Streptococci grow best on nutrient agar enriched with 5-10% blood, heated blood or serum. The optimum temperature for growth is 37oC though growth can occur between the temperature range of 22-42oC. S. pneumoniae grows optimally in air or hydrogen with 5-10% CO2. Incubation period is 24 hours (Ross, 1999. p 264) Answer7. Blood agar may be defined both as an enriched and differential medium used for culture of fastidious organisms. A differential medium enables to distinguish one microorganism from another based on the growth properties on the same medium. Blood agar differentiates microorganisms based on their hemolytic properties. Hemolysis is of three types alpha or partial, beta or complete and gamma or no hemolysis. A good example of use of blood agar as a differential medium is seen in grouping Streptococci. S. pneumoniae and viridans streptococci are alpha hemolytic, Group A S.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Fulbright Research Proposal Essay Example for Free

Fulbright Research Proposal Essay Claudia Ukonu, Netherlands, Interdisciplinary Studies The Effects of User Generated Content on Cross Channel Communication Strategies Summary As a recipient of the 2013-2014 Fulbright Grant I plan to enroll in the Masters in Methodology and Statistics for Behavioural, Biomedical and Social Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. While completing this degree I will also conduct a research study where I will seek to answer two questions 1) How Dutch companies use cross channel communication strategies to market new products and 2) How user generated content (i. . Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, etc. ) effects the implementation of those cross channel communication strategies. The study will use surveys, interviews and statistical methods to examine purchasing behavior and the relevant results will be analyzed with the establishment of an internship at a Dutch market research firm. My goal in completing this study is to apply the knowledge gained from my Masters courses to the relevant topic of consumer purchasing behavior, which will build a solid foundation for entering a PhD program in Statistics. Introduction Here in the United States Pinterest, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, and Instagram have become the way of projecting a glamorized image of oneself online. The idea of being modest and not bragging about one’s newly purchased Lamborghini or vacation to Tahiti is long gone. Consumers are now becoming the trendsetters as they now dictate the trends that companies tailor their products around. Examining how user generated content fulfills the Esteem and Love/Belonging parts of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be used as a model for predicting consumer habits. With the creation of social media networks, traditional ways of marketing seem to have little to no relevance. In order for companies to be effective when introducing new products and maintaining existing ones, it is vital that they are up to date with current trends in marketing new products through multiple communication channels. While each of these channels may have different demographics (i. e. the age difference between Facebook users and people who read newspapers) the goal of cross channel communication strategy is to ensure that the product being marketed conveys the same message on all channels. This can be a daunting task given the number of communication channels available to companies. Location In 2011, ComScore named the Netherlands as the number one country with the highest LinkedIn and Twitter penetration. This provides the perfect backdrop to see how Dutch companies are not only using cross channel communication strategies but, more specifically, how they are incorporating social media into those strategies. During the grant period I will be under the supervision of Dr.  Irene Klugkist, Associate Professor of Methodology and Statistics in the Graduate School of Social and Behavioural Sciences at Utrecht University. Methodology Upon arriving in Utrecht I will begin my MSc in Methodology and Statistics for Behavioural, Biomedical and Social Sciences at Utrecht University. I will enroll in the following courses for the fall semester: Advanced Survey Design and Missing Data Analysis, Multivariate Statistics, Foundations of Statistics, and Computational Inference with R. During the first two months in Utrecht I will spend my time focusing on becoming familiar with the foundations of statistics. In order to obtain accurate results when trying to determine the objectives of the study, it is vital that a selection of study participants is made. The participants will remain the same throughout the course of the study. This will be accomplished with the help of a study participant letter that will outline who I am, my purpose of study, what information I will collect from participants and how that information will be used in the study. I propose that no less than 100 participants be selected for the study. Having more participants will allow for a greater range of differentiation as well as data collection. The first two months of the grant period is also when I will spend time locating the participants of the study. I plan to include participants who are current students and working professionals. The demographics of my study will focus on men and women who are between the ages of 18-35. I am open to the possibility of changing these demographics given that after some time of living in Utrecht, I discover a niche market, to which this study’s objectives would be more relevant. The second objective‘How user generated content (i. e.  Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest etc. ) affects the implementation of cross channel communication strategies will be partially addressed in months 3-7 of the grant period. It is during this time that I will track the social behavior of the study participants. Relevant factors to the collection of this data will include: the time the post was made on the social network, the content of the post and responses to the original post. Surveys will also be given to participants asking about their desire to purchase items marketed on various communication channels. The first objective of the study will be applied in the form of an internship at a Dutch marketing firm where I will first observe the current cross communication strategies. After doing this, I will analyze the data collected in the first portion of the grant period. This analysis will help to determine whether 1) Consumer purchasing behavior can be predicted on the basis of user generated content and 2) If this behavior can be predicted, how can companies utilize this to their advantage. Dr.  Klugkist has expressed willingness to help me secure an internship for months 8-9 at a Dutch market research firm. During the internship I will examine the past and existing cross communication strategies of the company while looking at what factors went into the planning of this strategy. Part of the MSc program requires students to participate in a traineeship in their desired field (Behavioural, Biomedical or Social Sciences) in their final year of study. Dr. Klugkist sent my research proposal to Dr.  Van Hattum, a former Utrecht student who now works at a market research firm and he expressed interest in having me as a trainee during my final year at Utrecht University. Goal Throughout the study I hope to uncover cross communication opportunities that utilize social media and then use those opportunities as a foundation upon which I will develop new and existing product entry strategies. I will be able to apply this research and the resulting Masters degree to the completion of a PhD in Statistics.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The USA Patriot Act Essay -- US Government Terrorism protection Essays

The USA Patriot Act   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The United States of America is a country that is based upon a principle of balancing the rights of an individual, while still preserving public order. The U.S. Constitution (specifically the Bill of Rights) guarantees every American certain Individual rights. Some of these rights include; freedom from unreasonable search and seizures, a right to due process of law, and protection against cruel and unusual punishment (The 4th, 5th and 8th Amendments). Historically the criminal justice system has preserved these rights of peopled accused of crimes. However on September 11, 2001, the United States became the victim of the largest terrorist attack the World has ever seen. According to Schmalleger in 2003, that attack cost almost three thousand people their lives, and an estimated two trillion dollars in damages. However since September 11 2001, several critics have claimed that the United States of America no longer protects these rights. They argue that the United a nd Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, violates the rights of suspected terrorists, and those of every single American. Supporters of the USA PATRIOT Act argue that the bill has been vital in arresting suspected terrorists, and it has helped deter future terrorist attacks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism ACT of 2001, was signed into law on October 26, 2001, shortly after the September 11th attacks. The act was passed in a direct response to the attacks, as a way for Law Enforcement to combat and deter terrorism. Schmalleger (2003) on page 8 summarizes the USA PATRIOT ACT. ?A federal law (Public Law 107-56) enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon occurring on September 11, 2001. The Law, officially titled the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, substantially broadens the investigative authority of Law enforcements agencies throughout America and is applicable to many crimes other than terrorism.?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Shmalleger (2003) in pages 300-301 further listed specific sections of the act that law enforcement can use to investigate terrorist activities. ?Title II-Enhanced Sur... ...ost-9/11 calm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003, from Associated Press (2003, August 20). Ashcroft mounts Patriot Act defense.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Associated Press (2003, July 21). Patriot Act Complaints Reviewed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚,1294,59709,00.html Schmalleger, F. (2003). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Taylor, G. (2003, July 21). Communities Shun Patriot Act.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3269r Taylor, G. (2003, July 24). FBI chief praises the Patriot Act.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2975r Ward, J. (2003, June 18). Ashcroft defends Patriot Act in visit.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Retrieved August 25, 2003, 2731r

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The End of Something Analysis of Nick

Prompt: Nick is a typical, male chauvinistic jerk in â€Å"T. E. O. S. † Ernest Hemingway established a tough guy figure with great male chauvinist in the short story The End of Something using parallels and masculine egoism. Nick as the main character in the story casually broke up with his girlfriend over some seemingly unimportant matters during their fishing trip. Nick’s attitude towards Marjorie’s responses regarding fishing skills showed that he is highly uncomfortable with her knowledge on the same level as his.Nick’s masculinity was disappointed by this changing of dominance, and caused him to break up with Marjorie eventually. As a typical Hemingway short story, T. E. O. S. also uses the Iceberg theory, which indicates that the first paragraph was more than a background; it was paralleling the village’s changes with Nick’s dominance degradation. The short story T. O. E . S. starts with an introduction of how the Hortons Bay went from a lumber town to mill ruins.Hemingway cleverly parallels the relationship between Nick and Marjorie with the original Hortons Bay with the place that the woods were shipped to (and the wood being all the fishing skills that Nick taught Marjorie). The decay of Hortons Bay was a symbol of Nick’s decline of dominance in this relationship with his girlfriend. The declination of superiority in the relationship made Nick uncomfortable and less masculine. â€Å"Its open hold covered with canvas and lashed tight, the sails of the schooner filled and it moved out into the open lake, carrying with it everything that had made the mill a mill and Hortons Bay a town. (Hemingway, page 29) The last sentence in the first paragraph of the story indicates that Nick didn’t feel the same in the relationship with Marjorie as how he did before, with all the â€Å"wood† being shipped away and the contrast between how it is know and how it was before. While at the last part of the st ory, Nick repeated the same content â€Å"you know everything† for several times. The use of repetition implies that Nick is upset with the fact that Marjorie now grasps the all the knowledge of fishing that Nick once taught her and is now on the same level as him.Hemingway portrayed this tough guy figure, Nick, with high self-egoism, so when Nick found out that he was gradually losing superiority to his girlfriend and eventually they became equals, he got frustrated and annoyed. It can be told from the scenes where Nick and Marjorie were fishing, they argued on little aspects regarding whether the fish would strike, how to bait should be dealt with and where to drop and Nick would argue to prove that he is the more experienced and fights to reassure his dominance. ‘You know everything’ said Nick †,â€Å"‘I can’t help it. ’ said Nick, ‘You do. You know everything. That’s the trouble. You know you do. ’ †, "I’ve taught you everything. You know you do. What don’t you know, anyway? †(Hemingway, page 34) The failure of establishing himself as a dominating male in this relationship caused Nick’s final breakdown as he started to accuse Marjorie for knowing everything. Hemingway depicted the scene of Nick and his girlfriend Marjorie breaking up over a fishing trip to demonstrate a masculine dominated concept in Nick.The writer portrayed Nick’s frustration over losing the superiority to his girlfriend, as she became just as good a fisher as himself, so as to demonstrate that Nick is a typical male chauvinist who does not accept being equal to a woman. Hemingway paralleled Hortons Bay with Nick and Marjorie’s relationship and used repetition in the end to demonstrate Nick’s frustration, while both strategies helped to establish Nick as the tough guy figure.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ( Ocd ) - 1615 Words

Introduction Imagine if most of your day were spent thinking thoughts like—Did I wash my hand properly? Will this food make me ill if I eat it? Did I lock the door? — and have to reassure yourself by washing your hand 80 or more times, not eating at all because you fear of getting food poisoning, and/or having to check the door to see if it is locked 50 or more times before going to bed. These type of thoughts and behaviors are seen as abnormal or crazy to most people who have not dealt with mental illness. However, for sufferers of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) these thoughts and behaviors persist throughout their daily lives. OCD is an illness that presents obsessive thoughts and repeating the compulsive behavior in order to repress an anxiety attack provoked by worries and fear brought on by the obsessive thoughts. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) describes OCD as a recurrent â€Å"obsessions, compulsions, or both, the severity of which is significant enough to cause distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning† (Townshed, 2014, pp. 469). What is OCD: In the book, Washed My Life Away the main character Ruth displays obvious signs and symptoms of someone who is suffering from OCD. The majority of OCD suffers fall under one category—a washer, checker, doubters sinner, counters arrangers, and hoarders. Unlike most suffers of OCD, Ruth Falls under two categories because she is a washer—â€Å"one who is afraid ofShow MoreRelatedObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1756 Words   |  8 Pages Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder that can affect children and adults. In order to fully understand OCD, many different areas of the disorder must be reviewed. First, OCD will be defined and the diagnosis criteria will be discussed. 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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder oftenRead MoreLiving With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1190 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferences between both symptoms and experiences of six different authors who have been personally affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).   Since OCD is not very well understood by many members of the public (Escape), I hope that the experiences of the authors that I researched will be able to paint a vivid picture of what life with OCD is like. Obsessive-compulsive disorder involves a chemical imbalance in the brain. 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Essentially, it is a false core belief which is believing that there is something wrong, causingRead MoreEssay on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)3370 Words   |  14 Pages Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disease that many people know of, but few people know about. Many people associate repeated washing of hands, or flicking of switches, and even cleanliness with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), however there are many more symptoms, and there are also explanations for those symptoms. In this paper, I will describe what obsessive compulsive disorder is, explain some of the effects of it, and explain why it happens. I will also attempt to prove that while medicationRead More Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Essay1758 Words   |  8 PagesOCD: Whats in Control? Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder that is the fourth most common mental illness in the U.S. (8). OCD affects five million Americans, or one in five people (3). This is a serious mental disorder that causes people to think and act certain things repetitively in order to calm the anxiety produced by a certain fear. Unlike compulsive drinking or gambling, OCD compulsions do not give the person pleasure; rather, the rituals are performed to obtainRead MoreObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Essay examples1375 Words   |  6 PagesObsessive Compulsive Disorder â€Å"I know my hands are clean. I know that I have touched nothing dangerous. But†¦ I doubt my perception. Soon, if I do not wash, a mind numbing, searing anxiety will cripple me. A feeling of stickiness will begin to spread from the point of contamination and I will be lost in a place I do not want to go. So I wash until the feeling is gone, until the anxiety subsides. Then I feel defeated. So I do less and less, my world becomes smaller and smaller and more lonelyRead MoreEssay about Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)474 Words   |  2 Pages Obsessive Compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental illness that effects nearly 5 million Americans, and half a million children. Its a disease that fills the brain with unwanted ideas, and worries. OCD is a diseases that effects the Cerebral frontal cortex. Unfortunately there is no cure for OCD. Obsessive compulsive disorder can start developing as early as age five. In most cases OCD controls your life. Through out the rest of this paper I hope to inform you on Obsessive compulsive Disorders